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Foothill woodland

Foothill woodland is a California vegetation type characterized by an overstory of broadleaf and coniferous trees, generally found in areas of higher elevations and more precipitation than grasslands and oak savannah, and at lower elevations and less precipitation than mixed coniferous.
In the Sierra Nevada range, it is found on western slopes at elevations of 500 to 3,000 feet (150 to 910 m) in the northern part of the range, 800 to 4,000 feet (240 to 1,220 m) in the central part, and 1,250 to 5,000 feet (380 to 1,520 m) in the southern part. Annual precipitation in its range is 15 to 40 inches (0.38 to 1.02 m), with little precipitation in the summer. Growing season is 6-10 months. Temperatures range 75 to 96 └F (24 to 36 └C) in the summer, and 29 to 42 └F (-2 to 6 └C) in winter.
In the Sierra Nevada range, it is characterized by a dominant overstory of Foothill Pine (Pinus sabiniana), Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii), Interior Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis), California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii), California Buckeye (Aesculus californica), and understory plants including Ceanothus spp., Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), Dogwood (Cornus spp.), and Redbud (Cercis occidentalis). It is often found on north facing slopes there is more moisture in the soils from protection from the sun (slope effect).
Foothill Woodlands have declined as a result of development. In California counties, 64% have noted decreases greater than 5%. More residential commercial development has been occurring. A number of range lands have and continue to be converted.